Distance obtained by calculating how much time required for ultrasonic to travel from transmitter to receiver.
If you want to control an DC motor that can run forward or reverse you can do that in many ways. But I want to tell you the simplest way.
Converting resistance to voltage in electronics sometimes are so important because many electronics device such as microcontroller only can read voltage.
The LM317 device is an adjustable voltage regulator capable of supplying more than 1.5 A over an output-voltage range of 1.25 V to 37 V.
Unfortunately, your arduino can sense voltage only from 0V-5V. That’s why voltage divider come in handy.
We can’t use relay directly to microcontroller such as arduino or microprocessor like raspberry pi.
Driver is something that can control other electronic component